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Reading Interventions

Phonemic Awareness
Oral Expression

Class Wide

  • Provide concrete experience and have students discuss the event.
  • Echo read to give students an opportunity to repeat sentences and use appropriate syntax.
  • Use pictures from stories (read alouds, shared reading) to have students retell the story.
  • Provide students with pictures and encourage sharing.
  • Bring in objects and have students discuss what they know about them, especially ones that relate to topics being studied or read.
  • Read a variety of books to students and discuss them.
  • Encourage small group and one-to-one discussions. Some of the best conversations may be the natural, language-rich activities that are part of daily classroom routines.

Small Group

 

Letter Names

Class Wide

  • Draw students attention to the letters in their names.
  • Be explicit and discuss that their names are made up of specific letters.
  • Make name cards for all students and invite the to learn or generalize their knowledge by asking questions such as:
    • Does anyone have a name that begins with the same letter as…(name student)? Invite students to share and discuss their ideas. Compare the first letters of the names and comment appropriately.
    • Who has a name that begins with…(name letter)?
    • Does you name have a lowercase….(name letter)? Hold it up and point to it.
  • Refer to print on signs and posters in the room and talk about the letters that make up the words.
  • Invite students to bring in objects such as cereal boxes, fast food bags, etc. (environmental print) and discuss the letters that make up the words on these items.
  • Be sure that have a model of the alphabet displayed in the room so students can see how letters are formed.
  • Writing Center- Develop a writing center where students can compose and draw. Remember that writing is developmental and students may be making letter-like forms as they progress to conventional printing. Include pencils, colored pencils, markers, letter stamps, and various shapes and colors of paper.

Small Group

 

Letter Sounds

Class Wide

  • Read aloud alphabet books. Draw students attention to words that begin with the same sound.
  • Use graphic displays that combine the letter form with a picture of something that begins with that letter. Draw letters within the pictures rather than next to the picture. Display around the room.
  • Say a word and have students indicate whether their names begin with the same sound. Remember to stress sounds so names like Cecil and Sam begin with the same sound as circus. Clarify students’ responses as necessary.

Small Group

 

Rhyming

Class Wide

  • Read aloud nursery rhymes and poems to help students hear and develop understanding of words as units of sound that can be manipulated independently of meaning.
  • Listening corner with rhyming books or poetry to be explored during reading block.
  • Recite poems, finger plays and chants on a regular basis. Write these on chart paper (can use picture clues). Recite each line inviting students to echo back. Continue to add lines always beginning at the beginning as you add.

Small Group

 

Segment and Blend Syllables

Class Wide

  • For segmenting syllables, use the names of your students for initial activities. Say the first name of one student; then say the name again and clasp the syllables. Clap as you say each syllable. Continue with names of other students.
  • Say the name of well known words (candy, paper, pencil, etc.) slowly segmenting by syllable (can-dy, pa-per, etc.) Invite students to figure out what the word is. After they say the word, chorally say the word with blended syllables. Repeat with other common words. This can be done after a read aloud using words from the text..

Small Group

 

Onset and Rimes

Class Wide

  • Read aloud rhyming books, poetry and nursery rhymes. Point out the rhyming word families after the book has been read and enjoyed.
  • Word sorts with rime families
  • Create a rhyming word wall and ask students to draw/write words that they discover to add to the wall. Don’t forget to reference the words in your instruction in large and small group.
  • Provide time daily for writing.

Small Group

 

Segment, Blend and Manipulate Phonemes

Class Wide

  • Provide time daily for writing with invented spelling, even if students are writing single words or short phrases to accompany their illustrations. The process students go through listening to the sounds in words as they write using invented spelling helps them to attend to the individual sounds in words.
  • Read aloud children’s literature that playfully deals with sounds in language (Dr. Seuss, Jack Prelutsky, etc.)
  • Incorporate activities into daily classroom routines. For example, say a sound and let students whose names include that sound line up. Be sure students respond to the sound. For example, if you say kkk, Ken, Cathy and Nikki could all respond.
  • Incorporate lots of environmental print into the classroom environment. Consider having students bring print items from home and using these as your word wall.

Small Group

 

Phonics
Consonants

Class Wide

  • Use alphabet books for read alouds and shared reading experiences.
  • Provide pictures of objects for students to sort. Pictures can be sorted according to whether the sound at the beginning, middle, or end of the words is different or the same.
  • Invite students to bring in objects whose names begin with the sound being studied.
  • Place pictures and/or objects in a box. Some of the items should begin with the sound being studied; a few should not. Have students reach into the box, take out an item, name it, and indicate whether the initial sound of the object is the same as or different from the sound being studied. Then have students use the word in a sentence.
  • When students are reading and come across an unfamiliar word that contains the letter or letter combination being taught, encourage them to use the context along with their knowledge of the letter sound to pronounce the word.
  • Use the sounds of consonants during your regular school routine. For example, when the class is dismissed for the day, ask students whose last names begin or end with (letter) to leave first.
  • When students have learned several consonant sounds, provide sentences or stories with a word missing and invite students to use the context and their knowledge of certain sounds to predict the word (Cloze procedures). If a word is given that makes sense but does not begin with the appropriate letter, discuss why it is not the right choice. Invite students to share their thinking about particular responses and guide them as necessary.

Small Group

 

Vowels

Class Wide

  • Vowels are much more difficult for students to learn than consonants because they can represent more than one sound. Most vowels have two to three different sound, but there are also many exceptions for certain vowels. For example the long e sound can be spelled 16 different ways: see, team, equal, he, key, Caesar, deceive, receipt, people, demesne, machine, field, debris, amoeba, quay and pity.
  • Teaching various sounds of the vowels will probably span at least two grade levels. Generally short vowels are taught first because they have fewer spellings. However, some long vowels are easy to learn especially when they are the final letter in two-letter words (he, me, we).
  • Have students read short passage and circle words with long or short vowels. Then copy the words on a separate sheet of paper and have students attempt to categorize them. Each category should then be labeled with a description of what the long or short vowel words have in common.
  • Teach students the importance of vowels by placing cards with consonants on a table or under a document camera. Ask a volunteer to make a word with the letter cards. The students should quickly see that it is impossible to write words without vowels. Then include vowel cards and ask students to make words.
  • Write high-frequency words using two colors of markers-one color for vowels and another color for consonants.
  • Provide students with letter tiles or magnetic letters and have them engage in word-building opportunities.
  • Provide multiple opportunities each day for students to write.

Small Group

 

Word Patterns and Word Building

Class Wide

  • Read aloud rhyming books, poetry and nursery rhymes. Point out the rhyming word families after the book has been read and enjoyed.
  • Word sorts with rime families
  • Create a rhyming word wall and ask students to draw/write words that they discover to add to the wall. Don’t forget to reference the words in your instruction in large and small group.
  • Provide time daily for writing.

Small Group

 

Decode Unfamiliar Words with Structure

Class Wide

  • Ask students to circle the inflected endings in one of their pieces of writing. After finding endings in their own writing, they may want to read a story written by a classmate and find endings in a classmate’s writing. This activity helps create an awareness of endings.
  • Print prefixes and suffixes on tagboard or index cards. Pass out the cards to students. Write root words on sentence strips. Hold one root word card in front of the class. A student who has a prefix or suffix that would make a new word comes up to the front of the class and places the card in front of or behind the root word card. The student pronounces the word, and, if correct, the student may take the root word. Invite students to use the word in a sentence and, if necessary, help them understand the meaning of the word.
  • Place several headings on the board (for example, places, people, rides, things, times). Have students think of and write compound words that fit under each heading. Record words on the board or chart paper.
  • Give students several endings (e.g., -it, -ed, -ip, -et). Have students select one or more ending and then think of a beginning letter or blend that they could add at the beginning to make different words. Students could make words by themselves, with a partner, or in a small group. After several minutes, review the lists, have students use the words in sentences, and clarify or explain word meanings as necessary.
  • Play games such as Group Ball Toss, Twister and the Affix Stopped Me listed below.

Small Group

 

Sight Words

Class Wide

  • Place the sight words on a Word Wall.
  • Ask students to find the words in texts around the room. For example, the word and may be on a Friends and Neighbors bulletin board.
  • Use word games such as Bingo, Hangman, Word Dominoes, Word Checkers, or Go Fish.
  • Have students use the buddy system to practice word cards.
  • Chant the spelling of words. Clap together as the class spells a word out loud.
  • Have students write words. Writing provides a kinesthetic mode to help students learn and remember words.
  • Have students locate the most common high-frequency words (a, and, for, he, in, is, it, of, that, the, to, was, you) in newspaper or magazines. This activity will help students realize how frequently such words occur. Use a selection about 100 words in length.
  • Give students plenty of opportunities to read lots of easy materials

Small Group

 

Sight Vocabulary

Class Wide

  • Students should read many books that are easy for them. There are many books appropriate for students who have limited sight vocabularies.
  • For words that can be represented by a picture, print the word on the front of a card under the picture. The back of the card should contain the printed word. You can use logos from stores and businesses for some sight words.
  • Provide many opportunities for students to interact with print such as independent reading, read-along stories and books, repeated readings, share readings, poems, songs, and rhymes.
  • Adapt Sight Vocabulary Games (How Many?, Word Sort, Around the World, Word Hunt, Concentration) listed below for whole group.

Small Group

 

Using Context Clues

Class Wide

  • Read familiar pattern books to students, pausing at appropriate places so students can predict the missing word.
  • Create or provide a passage from a text in which selected words have been replaced with lines. Instruct students to read the passage and write in their choices of words. Stress that their words should make sense. Later, discuss their choices in conjunction with the words used by the author.
  • Using a text the students will be reading, read several sentences while omitting several words and have students predict the words that have been omitted. Then tell students the words used by the author and develop the idea that it is sometimes possible to predict a word the author will use.
  • Select a text that the students will need to read. Preview the text and determine which words might give the students difficulty. Model how you would use the context to help figure out the words. Think aloud so the students can hear your strategies. Choose at least one example where context is not particularly helpful.
  • List some common topics that students might be asked to read about and encourage them to list words that are likely to appear in the stories. Develop the notion that certain words might logically be expected to be associated with a particular topic.

Small Group

 

Fluency
Rate/Speed

Class Wide

  • Have students listen to multiple readings of a portion of text and compare and contrast the readings. Encourage discussion. Some suggested ways to read the selection are listed below.
    • Read the selection in a word-by-word manner.
    • Read the selection very slowly.
    • Read the selection very fast
  • Fluency Rate
  • Have students prepare written “conversations” between two classmates. Tell students that some oral reading including characters should sound a lot like conversations they have. Then invite student to choose a partner and practice reading the “conversations” using appropriate expression, phrasing, emphasis, and rate. Students should be encouraged to extend the conversation by predicting what would likely be said next.
  • Provide plenty of opportunities for meaningful oral reading in audience situations where students can practice communicating the intended message to listeners.

Small Group

  • Fluency Rate
  • Use reader’s theater scripts to help students practice appropriate rate and expression to convey meaning to the audience. Model as needed and then have students echo the lines using the same emphasis, tone, and expression.

 

Prosody (phrasing, intonation, expression)

Class Wide

  • Read pattern books with the students. Each time the pattern is repeated, ask the students to read it. Stress that the pattern should sound like speech (talking). Appropriate expression should also be used.  Model as necessary.
  • Enlarge a portion of text that you read to students. Have students follow along as your model appropriate phrasing. Highlight text cues that assist with appropriate phrasing.
  • Use phrase markers. On a page of enlarged text, place a slash mark at each natural break. Have the student try to read fluently to each slash mark before pausing. Model phrasing as needed.
    • My friend and I / decided to / ride our bikes / to school today.//
    • Tomorrow / our class / will go / on a field trip.//
    • We had pens, / pencils, /  and markers for creating a large, / informative poster.//
  • Take time to teach the various elements of prosody within the ongoing instructional program. Many of these elements can be modeled and discussed when you read orally to students. Comment on relevant elements before or after you read a particular sentence or passage. It is often helpful for students to see the passage when you are using it instructionally. (Think-Alouds)
  • Use sentences or short passages from students’ reading materials to teach, model, and practice other aspects of prosody.

Small Group

  • Write experience stories with the students. Ask the student to read the story back to you and pay close attention to the natural phrasing of the words.
  • List common phrases on cards and place them in a pocket chart. Ask the student to read the phrases so they sound natural. Some possible phrases are listed below:
  • in the lake
  • near the school
  • on the table
  • in my room
  • by my house
  • by the river
  • out of sight
  • over the hill
  • before the bell
  • in the closet
  • on the playground
  • on the road
  • Promote expressive reading by using plays, poems, songs, or readers’ theater scripts.
  • Have students listen to recorded texts that model good expression. Students should have a copy of the text so they can follow along.  Later, after listening several times, provide opportunities for students to read the texts to model the recording.
  • Encourage students to read poems in an expressive manner with partners (partner struggling students with a more capable reader). The more capable reader can model fluent reading for the struggling reader.

 

Fluency & Comprehension Integration

 

Comprehension
Activate Prior Knowledge

Class Wide

  • File Folder Lesson (link). Invite students to use their background knowledge to make predictions before reading (read alouds and shared reading). Remind them to use the title, pictures, chapter headings, and so on.
  • Model think alouds to show students how you use your background knowledge to make predictions about a selection or text you are reading (read aloud and shared reading). Use similar think alouds to help students learn how you link knowledge in your head with the passage while reading and after reading.
  • Based on the title of a book, chapter or passage/selection, have students brainstorm possible words tht students might encounter. Discuss the reasons behind certain choices that may appear strange.
  • Develop lessons that model what you do when the information in your head is different from what you are reading or have read in the text. Sometimes you may need to go back and reread to clarify something that does not match your existing knowledge. You may have to consider whether what you know is infatc, accurate. You may also need to go to another source (person or text) for additional information that will help clarify the conflicting information. Try to provide actual examples from your experiences for each situation.
  • Provide opportunity for discussion before, during and after interactive read alouds.

Small Group

 

Predicting Outcomes

Class Wide

  • Select picture  books with texts that has a plot and characters. Cover the text of the picture book and have students look at the illustrations and make predictions about what the story is about.
  • Use wordless picture books for read alouds and encourage students to develop the story.
  • Have students partner with another student. Ask them to choose one piece of writing from their writing folders and have each partner tell the other student the title of the piece of writing. Then have the student predict the other student’s story. After each partner has made their predictions, check them by reading the stories.
  • Select an object, photograph, or picture that is connected to a story or book that you are reading either as a read aloud, interactive read aloud or shared reading. Tell them that the object has “mysterious possibilities” (Stephens & Brown, 2000). Have students predict what those mysterious possibilities could be. Record students’ ideas on the board or chart paper. After students have shared their ideas, show students the book that you will be reading.

Small Group

 

Sequencing

Class Wide

  • Provide comic strips or stories told through pictures that are presented in a mixed-up order. Have students arrange the pictures in the order in which they happened and retell the story. This can be done with a read aloud, interactive read aloud or shared reading book.
  • After reading aloud, ask/discuss the sequence of events from the reading.
  • Have students arrange sentence strips that go with pictures to tell a story.
  • As a class, develop lists of words that may give clues to sequence such as, later, soon, tomorrow, yesterday, in the future, in the evening, etc. Add the words to an anchor chart and discuss the words. Encourage students to use the words in their writing.
  • Have students list step-by-step instructions for cooking, making something, doing a magic trick, etc. Other students can follow the directions as written in sequence to check to see if it makes sense.
  • Read aloud stories that have clear sequence of events. Create story cards of the events and place them in random order on the table or pocket chart. Ask students to place the events in the order of the story. A good story to start with is If You Give a Moose a Muffin (Numeroff, 1991).

Small Group

 

Monitoring Comprehension

Class Wide

  • As you are reading aloud, model how you use different strategies to “fix up” your understanding using think aloud language.
  • Before beginning a read aloud, interactive read aloud, or shared reading discussion the following strategies that you use creating an anchor chart as you introduce each component (use think aloud language):
    • Look to see how easy or hard the book is
    • Read a little of the book to get an idea
    • Read the book cover/back
    • Preview the pictures or chapter titles
    • Make a prediction about the book
    • Decide what genre the book is

Small Group

 

Self-Questioning

lass Wide

  • Conduct interactive read alouds and shared reading experiences.
  • Provide multiple opportunities for students to ask and answer questions around read experiences.
  • Discuss the question-answer relationships and why understanding these help us as readers.

Small Group

 

Vizualizing

Class Wide

  • Have students draw pictures from the pictures they formed in their minds as you read aloud. Students can then talk about their pictures in small groups.
  • Guide students through visualizing activities by having them visualize familiar events such as reading a book, flying a kite, riding their bike, swinging at the park.
  • Ask one student to leave the classroom. Ask the remaining students to describe the student in writing (clothes, physical attributes, interesting details, etc.) When the student comes back into the classroom, the other students should compare their descriptions to the actual student.
  • Use think aloud language to model what you are picturing in your head as you read aloud.

Small Group

 

Making Inferences

Class Wide

  • Select a wordless picture book to show to students. Read the title and show students the illustrations. Then have students make up a story based on the illustrations. Students can write their own stories, or contribute to a class story through an interactive or shared writing experience.
  • Collect a variety of advertisements. Display them on chart paper. Read and discuss them with students helping them “read between the lines” of the ads.
  • During interactive read alouds or shared reading discussions, help students build inferences by asking them “How do you know?” According to Richards and Anderson (2003), asking this simple question encourages students to think beyond the surface level of comprehension to the deeper level of making inferences. You may need to model answers to this question before students are able to conduct discussions that facilitate inferences.
  • Students can draw inferences while reading by writing about the main characters in the story (Bluestein, 2002). The following ideas help students improve their understanding of a character in the story through writing.
    • Decide whether you agree with the character’s actions. Write what you would do in the same circumstances.
    • Think about the character’s problem. Write whether you would react the same way.
    • Think about the character’s feelings. Write about the times you have had similar feelings.
    • Design a plan of action for the character. Write what the character should do.

Small Group

 

Making Connections

Class Wide

  • Have students bring family photographs to class. Tell students to place their photographs on their desks or tables and think of the many stories the photographs represent. Model using a photograph of your own.
  • Audiobooks are great for having students make connections (Labbo, 2000). Have students read and listen to an audiobook; then ask student to recall how events in the story are similar to other stories or to their personal experiences.
  • During read alouds, interactive read alouds, and shared reading experiences, model what connections you made to the text using think aloud language.

Small Group

 

Drawing Conclusions

Class Wide

  • Provide reading materials at the students’ instructional level and ask questions that encourage the students to use information in the passage to draw conclusions. Take time to discuss the basis for the conclusions that were drawn.
  • Provide questions for which students are asked to give logical conclusions such as:
    • What would happen if you-
      • didn’t sleep for two days?
      • had to stay in bed for a week?
      • had a birthday every month?
      • ate a pound of candy?
      • crashed into a tree on your bike?
  • Provide the class with pictures, illustrations, or verbal descriptions of events. Encourage them to list possible causes of the event and then select those that seem most appropriate. For example:
    • a soccer player being congratulated near the opponent’s goal
    • a child who has just blown out the candles on a cake
    • a boy and girl with sad expressions of their faces looking out their front window and seeing that it’s raining
    • a patient sitting in a doctor’s office.

Small Group

 

Vocabulary
Word Meanings

Class Wide

Small Group

  • Interactive Read Alouds – During an interactive read-aloud, you can stop at an interesting word and explain the meaning or go back to certain words that you sense students are having difficulty understanding.
  • Shared Reading – This is an excellent opportunity to help students expand vocabulary, because you are working with a text that will be very familiar to them.
  • Guided Reading – It is important to explain new word during the introduction to the text.
  • Independent Reading – It is extremely important to provide a large variety of texts for students to read independently.
  • Word Study Lessons – You can provide specific instruction on various aspects or words, many of which will impact students’ ability to grasp the meaning.
  • Writing Workshop – Help students express their own thinking and use new words effectively. (Use it or Lose it Link)

 

Taken/linked to AEA267 ELI Web Site – https://www.aea267.k12.ia.us/leadership/learning-opportunites/eli/